Heat, electricity, Sun, and fossil fuels: dynamic energy, emission, and cost optimisation
Dietmar Lindenberger, Thomas Bruckner, Helmuth M Groscurth, Reiner Kümmel
The potentials of energy conservation and emission mitigation are investigated by thermoeconomic systems analysis for a district heating system of 100 well-insulated housing units. The technologies considered are solar collectors, heat exchangers, the seasonal storage of solar heat, (gas-fired) condensing boilers, heat pumps, and the cogeneration of heat and electricity. Appropriate combinations of these technologies yield (non-renewable primary) energy savings between 15% and 35% associated with cost increases between 20% and 140% compared to a reference case with individual condensing boilers and electricity taken from the public grid.