Not-XOR (NXOR) Logic Gate Based on an Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction
Tobias L. Karschuck, Yaroslav Filipov, Paolo Bollella, Michael Schöning and Evgeny Katz
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions have been designed to mimic various Boolean logic gates in the general framework of unconventional biomolecular computing. While some of the logic gates, particularly OR, AND, are easy to realize with biocatalytic reactions and have been reported in numerous publications, some other, like NXOR, are very challenging and have not been realized yet with enzyme reactions. The paper reports on a novel approach to mimicking the NXOR logic gate using the bell-shaped enzyme activity dependent on pH values. Shifting pH from the optimum value to the acidic or basic values by using acid or base inputs (meaning 1,0 and 0,1 inputs) inhibits the enzyme reaction, while keeping the optimum pH (assuming 0,0 and 1,1 input combinations) preserves a high enzyme activity. The challenging part of the present approach is the selection of an enzyme with a well-demonstrated bell-shape activity dependence on the pH value. While many enzymes can satisfy this condition, we selected pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase as this enzyme has the optimum pH center-located on the pH scale allowing the enzyme activity change by the acidic and basic pH shift from the optimum value corresponding to the highest activity. The present NXOR gate is added to the biomolecular “toolbox” as a new example of Boolean logic gates based on enzyme reactions.