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Implementation of Microbe-Based Neurocomputing with Euglena Cells Confined in Micro-Aquariums
Kazunari Ozasa, Jeesoo Lee, Simon Song, Masahiko Hara and Mizuo Maeda

Using real Euglena cells in a micro-aquarium as photoreactive biomaterials, we demonstrated Euglena-based neurocomputing with two-dimensional optical feedback using the modified Hopfield–Tank algorithm. The blue light intensity required to evoke the photophobic reactions of Euglena cells was experimentally determined, and the empirically derived auto-adjustment of parameters was incorporated in the algorithm. The Euglena-based neurocomputing of 4-city traveling salesman problem possessed two fundamental characteristics: (1) attaining one of the best solutions of the problem and (2) searching for a number of solutions via dynamic transition among the solutions (multi-solution search). The spontaneous reduction in cell number in illuminated areas and the existence of photoinsensitive robust cells are the essential mechanisms responsible for the two characteristics of the Euglena-based neurocomputing.

Keywords: Microbe-based neurocomputing, euglena gracilis, micro-aquarium, optical feedback, phototaxis, travel salesman problem (TSP), neural network, biocomputing, flagellate microbial cells, microchannels

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