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Thermally Induced Failure Mechanisms in Inductors and Transformers Used in Electronic Systems
V. Lakshminarayanan and N. Sriraam

Transformers and inductors are commonly used passive elements used in electronic circuits. They are prone to failure under the influence of electrical stress, thermal stress and environmental stress factors caused during operation or testing. The failure of a transformer can lead to very serious consequences in electronic systems. Power supplies are the largest users of transformers. This paper discusses the failures occurring in transformers due to thermal stress. Various types of thermal stress caused in transformers and coils are explained in detail. Relevant industry standards which are applicable for transformers are discussed. Methods to prevent failure of transformers due to various causes including thermal stress are discussed.

Keywords: Transformers, inductors, thermal stress, failure, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, copper loss

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