Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells of radiation treated oral cancer patients
Gayathri Ramesh, Smriti Chaubey, Amrita Raj, Ravi Kumar Seth, Anuradha Katiyar and Amit Kumar
Background: Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. Evaluation of radiation-induced cellular changes to predict radiosensitivity has invested many investigators since such changes were first found in biopsy material.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of with histopathological grade and number of radiation therapy sittings with the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies among oral cancer patients.
Material & Method: Thirty male patients with histologically proven cases of oral cancer undergoing radiation therapy and age and sex matched 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Scrape cytology smears of exfoliated buccal cells were prepared and stained using Feulgen stain and frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies counts were evaluated with the help of light microscope expressed as per 1000 buccal cells.
Results: The mean values of the micronuclei and nuclear anomalies were 14.03 and 21.30 respectively. There was a significant association and strong positive correlation of Radiation exposure and grades of squamous cell carcinoma with micronuclei and nuclear anomalies. There was no statistically significant association and correlation between nuclear anomalies in well-differentiated and moderately differentiated carcinomas.
Conclusion: With increase number of radiation therapy sittings, there was increase in number of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies. Hence the result of this study highlights that increased number of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies provides information regarding radiosensitivity of epithelial cells.
Keywords: cytogenetic, genotoxin, micronuclei, nuclear anomaly, radiation.