Biomarkers for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer
Kruttibas Sethi, Siddik Sarkar, Subhasis Das, Biswanarayan Mohanty and Mahitosh Mandal
Thyroid tumor contributes 1% of the total tumor but 90% of the endocrine related tumors. Majority of the thyroid cancers are being diagnosed by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and histology. Although histology is considered as gold standard, it has some limitations, like variants of papillary and follicular cancer creates confusion among pathologists, where the morphological features are indistinguishable. Conventional histology and FNAC fails to provide any prognostic and therapeutic information. To address this problem, several immunohistochemical markers are proposed and their efficiency in thyroid cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are being evaluated. Among the discussed immunohistochemical markers, few have potential in accurate diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Hector battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1) and Galectin-3 (GAL-3) shows highest specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer respectively. Overexpression of EGFR in thyroid cancer is in proportionate with the severity of the advanced thyroid carcinoma, which required further evaluation and validation. Surgery and radio-iodine therapy is the main treatment modality, however; combined targeted therapeutic approach against different thyroid cancer receptor and biomarkers can reduce the side effect, and improve therapeutic efficiency. This review is oriented towards the finding of the potent thyroid cancer receptor having enhanced sensitivity and specificity, with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic efficiency.
Keywords: Biomarkers, Thyroid carcinoma, Immunohistochemical markers, HBME-1, GAL-3, EGFR, and FNAC