Relapsed or refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma radiosurgery: Report of the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation
Samuel M. Shin, Joshua S. Silverman, Greg Bowden, David Mathieu, Huai-Che Yang, Cheng-Chia Lee, Moses Tam, Paul Szelemej, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Or Cohen-Inbar, Jason Sheehan, Ajay Niranjan, L. Dade Lunsford and Douglas Kondziolka
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be used as part of multimodality management for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). The objective of this study is to evaluate outcomes of SRS for this disease.
The International Gamma Knife Research Foundation identified 23 PCNSL patients who underwent SRS for either relapsed (intracerebral in-field or out-of-field tumor recurrences) or refractory disease from 1995-2014. All 23 patients presented with RPA Class I or II PCNSL, and were initially treated with a median of 7 cycles of methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens (range, 3-26 cycles). Ten received prior whole brain radiation (WBRT) to a median dose of 43 Gy (range, 24-55 Gy). Sixteen presented with relapsed PCNSL, and seven presented with refractory disease. Twenty-three received 26 procedures of SRS. The median tumor volume was 4 cm3 (range, 0.1-26 cm3), and the median margin dose was 15 Gy (range, 8-20 Gy). Median follow-up from SRS was 11 months (interquartile range, 5.7-33.2 months). Twenty presented with treatment response to twenty-three tumors (12 complete, 11 partial). Fourteen patients relapsed or were refractory to salvage SRS, and local control was 95%, 91%, and 75% at 3, 6, and 12 months post SRS. Intracranial (in-field and out-of-field) and distant (systemic) PFS was 86%, 81%, and 55% at 3, 6, and 12 months post SRS. Toxicity of SRS was low, with one developing an adverse radiation effect requiring no additional intervention.
Although methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens with or without WBRT is the first-line management option for PCNSL, SRS may be used as an alternative option in properly selected patients with smaller relapsed or refractory PCNSL tumors.
Keywords: radiosurgery; primary central nervous system lymphoma; salvage; International Gamma Knife Research Foundation