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The Temperature of the Atom
M. Kozlowski and J. Marciak-Kozlowska

Fascinating developments in optical pulse engineering over the last 20 years have led to the generation of laser pulses as short as few femtoseconds, providing a unique tool for high resolution time domain spectroscopy. In addition, a number of the processes in nature evolve with characteristic times of the order of one femtosecond or even shorter. Time domain studies of such processes require at first place sub-femtosecond resolution, offered by pulse depicting attosecond localization. The generation, characterization and proof of principle applications of such pulses is the target of the attoscience. In this paper the thermal processes on the attosecond scale are described. The Proca thermal equations is developed. The relativistic effects in the heat transport on nanoscale are discussed. It is shown that the standard Fourier equation can not be valid for the transport phenomena induced by attosecond laser pulses. The heat transport in nanoparticles is investigated.

Keywords: Attosecond laser pulses, nanoscale heat transport, quantum heat transport, hyperbolic heat transport equation, parabolic heat transport equation, Proca equation, Pauli- Heisenberg inequality

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