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Emerging Theory in Educational Technology: What has Changed since the Mid-1980s
William Winn

Buder and Hesse (2003) made a number of important points in their response to my article on learning in artificial environments (Winn, 2003). In this article, I address three of their points. I expand on what I said earlier about the role of dynamical systems theory in cognition and learning with technology. The concept of how students are coupled to a learning environment, rather than simply interacting with it, is developed and the case made that this view opens new possibilities for thinking about learning. Next, I argue that cognitive neuroscience has the potential for helping educational researchers and practitioners develop new frameworks for thinking about learning. Finally, I argue that systems theory and cognitive neuroscience have a lot to contribute to our understanding and study of embodied cognition. This latter argument is illustrated by recent research into learning from complex artificial environments.

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