The effect of flow regime on surface oscillations during electromagnetic levitation experiments
G.P. Bracker, E.B. Baker, J. Nawer, M.E. Sellers, A.K. Gangopadhyay, K.F. Kelton, X. Xiao, J. Lee, M. Reinartz, S. Burggraf, D. M. Herlach, M. Rettenmayr, D. Matson, R.W. Hyers
During containerless processing, the oscillating drop method can be used to measure the surface tension and viscosity of a levitated melt. Through containerless processing, reactive melts that cannot be measured through conventional methods can be accurately measured; however, the accuracy of this method is dependent on the internal flow within the drop. While laminar flow does not redistribute the momentum of the oscillations, turbulent flow does redistribute the momentum of the flow and, as a result, dominates the damping. As a result, it is important to understand the internal flow behavior and the factors that affect the flow during these experiments. Models are used for the indirect quantification and characterization of the internal flow using the experimental parameters and material properties. In some cases, such as Cu50Zr50, the flow is laminar over the full range of the experiment. In other cases, including Al75Ni25, the sample is dominated by turbulent flow at high temperatures and applied electromagnetic fields, but upon cooling, transitions to laminar flow. Additionally, cases exist in which the flow is fully turbulent over the range of interest and valid measurements using the oscillating drop method are not possible. During the design phase of the experiment, the experimental parameters should be modeled to characterize the flow behavior and ensure a clean experiment.
Keywords: Oscillating Drop, EML, Internal Flow, CFD Simulations