Prognostic and therapeutic applications of the molecular events in clinical management of urothelial carcinoma of bladder
Urothelial carcinoma of bladder being the commonest malignancy of the urinary tract progresses through successive accumulation of genetic alterations and bears high metastatic potential. Despite significant advances in its prognosis and treatment, including surgical techniques, various adjuvant therapies, radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy, tumor recurs with a poor 5 year survival rate thereby necessitating the need to institute an additional form of novel target based therapies to improve the overall outcome. Improved understanding of the molecular pathways critical for both early and late stage disease not only leads to better prognostication but may also enhance therapeutic index. This review article highlights the recent progress in the development of novel anticancer targeted therapies that may modulate clinical response of cytotoxic drugs with minimal adverse side effects and provide insight for the potential reversion of the resistance in patients failing therapy.
Keywords: Non muscle invasive bladder cancer; Muscle invasive bladder cancer; Prognosis; Targeted therapies; Overall survival rate.