Effect of lupeol on antioxidants and xenobiotic enzymes in N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine induced bladder carcinogenesis in experimental rats
Bhoopathy Prabhu, Annamalai Sivakumar, Doraisami Balakrishnan and Sivapatham Sundaresan
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy ranked 9th with an estimated 356,600 new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. The study showed the protective effects of Lupeol in N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine induced bladder carcinogenesis in in vivo experimental model. Forty male healthy wistar rats were selected randomly divided into four groups. Group I rats served as healthy control. Group II rats were treated with BBN (150 mg/gavage/twice a week) for 8 weeks. Group III rats were treated with BBN + Lupeol [Lupeol (50 mg/kg bw/day) treatment was started 1 week prior to the BBN treatment, and it was orally administered for 8 weeks]. Group IV rats were treated with Lupeol alone (50 mg/kg bw/day) for 8 weeks. All the experimental rats were maintained and euthanized at 32nd week. Serum and bladder tissues were collected and examined for biochemical parameters, serum markers and histopathological evaluation. Preventive (BBN + Lupeol) group modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Reduced glutathione, Glutathione Peroxidase, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and drug metabolizing enzymes such as Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome b5, NADPH Cytochrome c reductase, NADPH-Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 and Glutathione-S-transferase when compared to BBN treated rats. Serological markers such as Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in preventive lupeol treated groups. Lupeol supplementation protects BBN induced bladder carcinogenesis in experimental rats by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties.
Keywords: Bladder cancer, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN), antioxidant enzymes, xenobiotic enzymes, lupeol