Real-time detection and quantification of Epstein Barr virus in different grades of oral gingivitis and periodontitis patients
Apurva K. Srivastava, Sanket Shukla, Priya Srivastava, TN Dhole, Meghanand T Nayak, Anjali Nayak and Asha Mathur
Background: Periodontal diseases are of microbial etiology and are globally causing loss of teeth in adult population. Many severe oral diseases have been recently associated to Herpes viruses, of which Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have been indicated in the etiology of periodontal diseases.
Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of EBV in different types of periodontal diseases namely acute gingivitis, chronic gingivitis, acute and chronic, localized and generalized aggressive (juvenile) periodontitis and apical periodontitis.
Material and Method: 70 individuals were included in this study. Supragingival plaque and plaque from two deepest sites of the periodontal pockets were collected then stored at -70° c and prepared for nucleic acid extraction. For EBV detection, DNA were extracted from the plaque samples with the QIAamp DNA mini kit. Q-PCR was performed by targeting the non-polymorphic Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) gene using Corbett Research 6000 Q-PCR instrument and Rotor gene 6000 software.
Results: Overall prevalence of EBV in the disease group was 60% (27/45 patients) as compared to only 8% (4/25 people) in the normal population. The mean copy number of EBV DNA was found to be significantly higher in periodontitis (2234 ± 1811.34) when compared to gingivitis (554 ± 537.64, p = .001) and normal patients (370 ± 161.03, p < .001).
Conclusion: Here, we found that the prevalence of EBV as well as copy number of EBV was significantly higher in periodontitis patients as compared to gingivitis patients or normal population.
Keywords: Epstein Barr virus, Gingivitis, Periodontitis