A nanoemulsion of an anti-oxidant synergy formulation reduces tumor growth rate in neuroblastoma-bearing nude mice
Fonghsu Kuo, Timothy Kotyla, Thomas Wilson, Lydia Kifle, Thomai Panagiotou, Irwin Gruverman, Jean-Bosco Tagne, Thomas Shea, and Robert Nicolosi
Neuroblastoma, the most common form of childhood cancer, may arise from a biochemical block of cellular differentiation and a resultant continuation of a proliferative state. Neuroblastoma often spontaneously reverts by undergoing partial differentiation and ultimate degeneration and may be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently reported in neuroblastoma cell culture studies that an anti-oxidant synergy formulation (ASF) can induce differentiation and buffer neuronal degeneration and oxidative stress in cultured cortical neurons and in central nervous system tissue of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a subcutaneous injection and/or transdermal application of a nanoemulsion preparation of ASF would reduce tumor growth rate in a neuroblastoma xenograph mouse model. The results indicate that whereas suspensions of ASF were ineffective in decreasing tumor growth rate in the neuroblastoma mouse model, tumor growth rate was similarly reduced an average 65% by either subcutaneous injection or transdermal application of an ASF nanoemulsion preparation to the tumor. In conclusion, the data suggest that subcutaneous and/or transdermal application of an ASF nanoemulsion preparation is effective in reducing tumor growth rate in this neuroblastoma mouse model.