CDDO-Me inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, down-regulates Akt, mTOR, NF-kk B and NF-kk B-regulated antiapoptotic and proangiogenic proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer cells
Dorrah Deeb, Xiaohua Gao, Scott A. Dulchavsky and Subhash C. Gautam
Chemoprevention represents a promising strategy to reducing the incidence of prostate cancer which afflicts more than 240,000 males annually in the U.S. 2-cyano-3,12- dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and its C-28 methyl ester (CCDO-Me) and C-28 imidazole (CDDO-Im) derivatives are synthetic oleanane triterpenoids that exhibit several-fold more potent anti-inflammatory activity than naturally occurring oleanolic acid, but have not been investigated for prevention of the prostate. In order to evaluate the anticancer activity of CDDOs for prostate cancer, we have investigated the effect of synthetic oleanane triterpenoids on molecular targets relevant to the chemoprevention and treatment of prostate cancer in vitro in TRAMPC-1 cells derived from the primary tumor in the prostate of a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse. Data demonstrate that CDDOs strongly inhibit the proliferation of TRAMPC-1 cells with a potency order of CDDO-Me>CDDO-Im>CDDO. Because CDDO-Me showed the most growth inhibitory activity it was further analyzed for the anticancer activity. CDDO-Me induced apoptosis in TRAMPC-1 cells as shown by the increased binding of annexin V-FITC and cleavage of procaspases 3,-8, and -9. It effectively inhibited the molecular targets such as p-Akt, NF-kB, and p-mTOR and downstream effectors of mTOR (p-S6K1, cyclin-D1, and cdk4). Further, CDDO-Me inhibited NF-kB-regulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and XIAP and proangiogenic VEGF. Taken together, these data demonstrate that CDDO-Me is potentially a potent chemopreventive agent that inhibits several molecular targets that are known to play critical roles in the development and progression of prostate cancer.