Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms: susceptibility and outcome in lung cancer patients
Leelakumari Sreeja, Vani Syamala, Sreedharan Hariharan, Volga S Syamala, Praveenkumar B Raveendran, CD Sivanandan, Jayaprakash Madhavan and Ravindran Ankathil
The glutathione S–transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of genes whose products are phase II enzymes, catalyzing the conjugation of reactive intermediates to soluble glutathione. Some of the GSTs are polymorphic and may play a role in lung cancer susceptibility. We investigated whether genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes modulated lung cancer risk and affect survival among lung cancer patients. We determined the GST genotypes in 422 study subjects, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Logistic Regression analysis was carried out to find the association of various polymorphisms and GSTs and lung cancer. The influence of the genetic polymorphisms on patient survival was estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival function. Cox Proportional Hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for deaths. GSTT1 -/- genotype conferred a higher odds ratio of 2.9 (P=0.001) compared to the GSTT1+/+. So also, the GSTP1 GG genotype too had higher risk compared to the GSTP1 AA genotype (OR=2.3, P=0.033). When the combined GST M1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were examined, patients with the combinations GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null had a significant OR of 3.6. So also the combinations GSTT1-/- GSTP1 AA (P= 0.005) and GSTT1-/- GSTP1 AG/GG (P=0.001) came out to be significant. There were some significant interactions between GST genotypes with tobacco smoking and also for clinicopathological factors. Regarding survival analysis, no association of GSTM1 or GSTP1 genes with survival was noted. The GSTT1 -/- genotype along with stage was significantly associated with overall survival and found to be an independent prognostic factors for shorter lung cancer survival.