Beach Rehabilitation in Cyprus using Environmentally Friendly Structures
V.K. Tsoukala, E.N. Anastasaki, C.I. Moutzouris, N. Iakovou, and S. Zervos
The construction of the Kato Pyrgos Harbor (Tilliria, Cyprus) finished in 1989 and since then has been accumulating longshore moving sediments, the main cause of beach erosion along the downdrift coast. Moreover, substantial quantities of algae are entrapped in the harbor basin and in the adjacent beach, creating operational problems in the harbor as well as an offensive odor in the surrounding area during algal decomposition. To prevent coastal erosion 5 cross type groins were built in 1989, which failed to protect the beach. Considering the morphology, sedimentation, waves and current climate in the area, a prototype scheme of coastal structures consisting of a multi-detached system of low-crested breakwaters and small groins was designed to protect an extended length of shoreline and prevent or eliminate the entrapment and accumulation of algae in the harbor basin. The efficiency of the proposed structures was evaluated through physical model tests performed in a 3-D wave basin. Morphological beach evolution, wave run-up and the transformations of wave characteristics along the beach and inside the harbor basin were monitored along the three predominant directions of wave incidence. The experimental results suggest that the proposed structures of soft defense will solve the erosion problem and limit algal accumulation in the harbor basin, providing an environmentally friendly solution.
Keywords: Detached breakwaters; Coastal erosion; Low crested coastal structures; Physical model; Case Study