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Problems with Problem-Based Learning: Comments on Model-Centered Learning and Instruction in Seel (2003)
J. Michael Spector

Several instructional design theorists have described an approach for the design of instruction that puts models in the forefront of learning (Gibbons, 2001; Milrad, Davidsen & Spector, 2002; Seel, 2003). These approaches are called model-centered or model-facilitated learning and instruction. Model-centered instruction is consistent with many problemcentered instructional design approaches but avoids the lack of adequate theoretical foundations and provides an agenda for conducting empirical research to determine which specific model-centered instructional methods work best in various situations.

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