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A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Underground-to-Underground Communication for Wireless Sensor Networks
Suk-un Yoon, Liang Cheng, Ehsan Ghazanfari, Sibel Pamukcu and Muhannad T. Suleiman

The paper proposes a radio signal propagation model for underground low-power devices such as wireless sensor nodes and evaluates the model through the measurements using real wireless sensor nodes (i.e., MICAz). In the proposed underground radio propagation model and the measurements, the received signal strength is proportional to e−2αd/d2 where d represents the distance and α represents the attenuation constant reflecting the soil properties. Comparing the theoretical estimations of the underground radio propagation and the measured data, the theoretical model fits the measured data well within a 3.6dBm deviation or with an accuracy of 96.1% on average.

Keywords: Underground radio propagation model;

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