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DTA: Deployment and Tracking Algorithm in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Ibtissem Boulanouar, Stéphane Lohier, Abderrezak Rachedi and Gilles Roussel

In this paper we address the problem of node deployment and target tracking in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. We define Mobile Object Tracking as a two stage process: 1) detecting the presence of the object in the monitoring area; and 2) locating it at each stage of its progression in the area of interest. We propose DTA: Deployment and Tracking Algorithm, a distributed protocol that runs on Heterogeneous WSN (HWSN), composed of two types of sensors: Motion Sensors (MSs) and Camera Sensors (CSs). DTA starts by a deployment strategy for both sensors type based on critical sub-areas. Then, the tracking algorithm begins. The MSs deal with the detection phase and activate the CSs which are the most likely to detect the mobile target. The heterogeneous network and the deployment strategy for this network represent the main contribution of this paper. We carry out simulations to evaluate the efficiency of our proposed solution in terms of tracking accuracy, energy consumption and number of exchanged messages. The obtained results are compared to two existing solutions: 1) BASIC solution where only CSs are deployed in active mode to monitor the area of interest; and 2) OCNS (Optimal Camera Node Selection), a cluster-based approach with CS election. We observe that the deployment strategy has a positive impact on target tracking. We also notice that DTA significantly reduces the tracking cost in term of energy consumption (up to 35.87% of energy saved compared to other algorithms). It also performs tracking with better accuracy (up to 37.5% on the tracking accuracy).

Keywords: Wireless multimedia sensor networks, tracking, mobile target

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