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An Energy-Efficient and Balanced Method for Centralized Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
Hamid Karimi

To address the challenges of uneven energy usage and limited network lifespan in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), centralized hierarchical routing protocols are commonly utilized. One of the main focuses in WSNs is clustering and selecting cluster heads. This paper proposes an energy efficient clustering routing algorithm, improved by the sine cosine algorithm (ECRA). The algorithm first determines the optimal number of cluster heads per round based on the surviving nodes, and creates a candidate cluster head set by selecting high-energy nodes. A random population is then constructed to represent a group of cluster head selection schemes, with a fitness function designed based on inter-cluster distance. The ECRA algorithm is improved using a monotone decreasing convex function, and a certain number of iterations are carried out to select a group of individuals with the minimum fitness function value. Simulation experiments show that the improved algorithm can extend the network’s effective life by balancing energy consumption among nodes and avoiding premature death of some nodes. It greatly improves energy utilization and network lifespan and reduces the overall network energy consumption better than the previous method.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Routing Algorithm, Energy Efficient, Network Lifespan