Maintaining Sensing Coverage and Connectivity in Large Sensor Networks
Honghai Zhang and Jennifer C. Hou
In this paper, we address the issues of maintaining sensing coverage and connectivity by keeping a minimum number of sensor nodes in the active mode in wireless sensor networks. We investigate the relationship between coverage and connectivity by solving the following two sub-problems. First, we prove that if the radio range is at least twice the sensing range, complete coverage of a convex area implies connectivity among the working set of nodes. Second, we derive, under the ideal case in which node density is sufficiently high, a set of optimality conditions under which a subset of working sensor nodes can be chosen for complete coverage. Based on the optimality conditions, we then devise a decentralized density control algorithm, Optimal Geographical Density Control (OGDC), for density control in large scale sensor networks. The OGDC algorithm is fully localized and can maintain coverage as well as connectivity, regardless of the relationship between the radio range and the sensing range. Ns-2 simulations show that OGDC outperforms existing density control algorithms [25, 26, 29] with respect to the number of working nodes needed and network lifetime (with up to 50% improvement), and achieves almost the same coverage as the algorithm with the best result.