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Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Teng Gao, Rencheng Jin, Taibing Xu and Liding Wang

Clustering algorithm is wildly used in the routing of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, because of the non-uniform cluster-head selection in the classical clustering algorithm, some nodes maybe exhaust energy prematurely. In this paper, a distributed, energy-efficient routing protocol based on multiple objective decision-making and ant colony (EERMA) is proposed for large scale cluster-based wireless sensor networks. A multiple objective decision-making based clustering algorithm is adopted to select the best nodes as the cluster-heads according to their energy efficiency. Meanwhile, the Density Method is adopted to avoid collisions and to ensure the symmetrical distribution of the cluster-heads. In inter-cluster, an improved AntNet algorithm, which is a biologically inspired paradigm specified for WSNs, is adopted across all cluster-heads to forward aggregate data to the sink node by means of multi-hop. As only cluster-heads participate in the inter-cluster routing operation, the algorithm can provide a smooth operation more effectively. Simulation results denote that EERMA algorithm has longer lifetime and more eximious expansibility than LEACH-like algorithms.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Routing; Cluster; Multiple Objective Decision-Making; Ant Colony

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