Negotiation-based Stimulating Cooperation of Selfish Nodes in the Ad hoc Networks
Yang Yang, Xue-Song Qiu, Lio-Ming Meng and Lin Chen
In the civilian and commercial ad hoc networks, mobile nodes belong to different authorities or individuals, aren’t willing to consume their own resources to provide service for another. The selfish behaviors need to be stimulated to participate in the cooperation. We design a Negotiation-based Stimulating Cooperation model of Ad Hoc nodes (AHNSC) that adopts virtual currency as the main incentive mechanism for bargaining of services and resources. We propose the initial and reserve price models for buyer and seller according to the context of the negotiation. In addition, a motivation-oriented mechanism is used to evaluate a seller’s initial price, which imitates human’s behaviors and determines whether it responds to the buyer rather than accepts unconditionally negotiation invitations. Negotiation tactics influence actions that a node plans to perform and negotiation outcomes. We develop a hierarchical clustering-based genetic model to generate offers by imitating opponents’ behaviors and optimize the mutual benefits at each round. Simulation results demonstrate the AHNSC model has the superior performances in reducing energy consumption and traffic of network, achieving a balance between the mutual beneficial utility and the negotiation speed.
Keywords: Negotiation; stimulating cooperation; virtual currency; motivation; clustering