Market-Based Sensor Relocation by Robot Team in Wireless Sensor Networks
Haottian Li, Ahmed Barnawi, Ivan Stojmenovic and Cheng Wang
Randomly scattered sensors may cause sensing holes and redundant sensors. In carrier-based sensor relocation, mobile robots (with limited capacity to carry sensors) pick up additional or redundant sensors and relocate them at sensing holes. In the only known localized algorithm, robots randomly traverse field and act based on identified pair of spare sensor and coverage hole. We propose a Market-based Sensor Relocation (MSR) algorithm, which optimizes sensor deployment location, and introduces bidding and coordinating among neighboring robots. Sensors along the boundary of each hole elect one of them as the representative, which bids to neighboring robots for hole filling service. Each robot randomly explores by applying Least Recently Visited policy. It chooses the best bid according to Cost over Progress ratio and fetches a spare sensor nearby to cover the corresponding sensing hole. Robots within communication range share their tasks to search for better possible solutions. Simulation shows that MSR outperforms the existing competing algorithm G-R3S2 significantly on total robot traversed path and energy, and time to cover holes, slightly on number of sensors needed to cover the hole and number of sensor messages for bidding and deployment location sharing.
Keywords: Bidding; sensor relocation; coverage repair; mobile robot