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A Novel Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on CDMA and TDMA
Qiang Ling, Jinfeng Yan and Haojiang Deng

Many wireless sensor network (WSN) routing protocols spend lots of resources to build end-to-end routes before transmitting data packets. Moreover, they have to maintain these routes regularly. On the contrary, the location-based routing protocols need not establish routing paths in advance and route packets just according to the locations of nodes, which simplifies routing establishment. These location-based ones, however, have some disadvantages, like heavy communication collision, low energy efficiency. This paper proposes a new location-based routing algorithm for WSNs by partitioning the sensor field into regions and implementing CDMA and TDMA to these regions. The new algorithm doesn’t build routes before sending data packets. It can effectively reduce the communication conflicts between nodes. Moreover, it takes the remaining energy of nodes into account when doing data transmission decision. The new algorithm improves the energy efficiency and more data packets can be received by the base station before the WSN dies. We compared the new algorithm with the well-known LEACH protocol, LASAA (a cluster-based CDMA/TDMA protocol), and LEDO (a location-based routing protocol) through simulations on the ns-2 platform. The simulation results show that the new algorithm significantly reduces the communication conflicts and performs better than the others in the large scale networks and the light load networks.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, CDMA, TDMA, location-based routing.

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