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Game Theoretic Framework for Energy Cooperation in Wireless Sensor Networks with Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transfer
Qiao Li, Yifei Wei, Mei Song and F. Richard Yu

An energy cooperation policy for energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with wireless power transfer is proposed in this paper to balance the energy at each sensor node and increase the total energy utilization ratio of the whole WSNs. Considering the unbalanced spatiotemporal properties of the harvested energy across the deployment terrain of the WSNs and the dynamic traffic load at each sensor node, the energy cooperation process among sensor nodes is decomposed into two steps: each sensor node locally calculates its optimal energy storage amount based on its traffic load; within the calculation of the optimal energy storage amount at each sensor node, sensor nodes with excess energy transmit a part of their energy to nodes with energy shortage through energy trading. Inventory theory and game theory are respectively applied to calculating the local optimal energy storage amount at each sensor node and the energy trading problem among multiple sensor nodes. Numerical results show that compared with the static energy cooperation method without energy trading, the Stackelberg Model based Game we design in this paper can significantly improve the trading volume of energy thereby increasing the utilization ratio of the harvested energy which is unevenly distributed in the WSNs.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; energy harvesting; wireless energy transfer; energy cooperation; energy utilization ratio; inventory theory; game theory.

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