Evaluation of Propagation Path Delay Using 3D Scattered Model in LoRaWAN
Zulfiqar Ali, Shagufta Henna, Saif-Ul Islam and Adnan Akhunzada
Low PowerWide Area Network (LPWAN) aims to realize nation-wide, low power connectivity solutions for the Internet of Things (IoTs). Given propagation characteristics of the underlying channel, the largescale path loss caused by free space path loss and shadowing may adversely affect the quality of received signal strength. Moreover, path loss due to multi-path propagation may also cause rapid fluctuations to the quality of received signal strength. A change in angle of interest is related with a significant effect on propagation path delay (PPD) in a wireless environment. The 3D semi-ellipsoid and scattered regions may also severely affect the propagation path delay. The paper presents different propagation considerations for the design of LoRa physical layer. The paper largely contributes by investigating the propagation path delay experienced by LoRaWAN under 3D semi-ellipsoid model. Finally, in an effort to anticipate potential deployments, the rigorous analysis and experimental evaluation results present promising research directions for the LoRaWAN network.
Keywords: LPWAN, LORA, LoRaWAN, propagation path delay.