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Joint Geographic and Energy-aware Routing Protocol for Static and MobileWireless Sensor Networks
Ghada A. Al-Mashaqbeh, Jamal N. Al-Karaki, Mohammad Al-Rousan, Asad Raza, Haider Abbas and Maruf Pasha

Scarcity of resources is among the main design challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The ability of continuously monitoring the area of interest is tightly coupled with optimizing energy consumption of the sensor nodes. Routing plays a crucial rule in WSNs operation where it affects both resource utilization and quality of service. Recent directions exploit mobility in optimizing routing, however, with the cost of additional challenges such as the highly dynamic network topology and the need for node localization techniques. In this paper, we propose an Energy and Location-based Routing protocol (ELBR) for static and mobile WSNs. ELBR relies on both node geographic information and their residual energy levels in the route construction process. It directs the nodes to choose high-quality routes that achieve progress in packets transmission and balances energy consumption among network regions. In addition, it utilizes node mobility in a controlled manner to redistribute them based on their energy level without changing the network topology. We evaluated ELBR by using extensive simulation experiments that analyzed the effect of the protocol configuration parameters, in addition to comparing its performance to these of the state of art routing protocols and metrics. The simulation results demonstrate the enhanced performance of ELBR in extending the network lifetime, balancing the energy consumption among the nodes, and reducing the node death rate.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Routing, Energy-aware, Mobile networks, Geographic routing

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