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Energy Balance Analysis and Control for the Energy Hole Problem in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Yinxiang Qu, Yifei Wei, Yang Liu and Mei Song

In wireless ad hoc networks where the energy in each node is limited, the nodes located in the center area usually relay too much data and run out of energy very quickly, and thus cause the energy hole problem. This paper analyzes the optimal coverage radius of each node and the optimal hop distance in terms of energy saving, and provides a cross-layer energy balancing and control strategy. This strategy combines the optimal coverage radius and the location information to solve the energy hole problem. Firstly, we analyzed the impact of the coverage radius on the data transmission and routing process and discovered the optimal hop distance under a given transmitting signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Secondly, to make the network energy efficient, the optimal receiving SNR is designed to help nodes decide whether to resend routing request or not. Finally, we proposed an energy balancing routing method based on the optimal hop distance and receiving SNR, with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of nodes in the center area and improving the network capacity. Simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existed protocols in terms of the number of surviving nodes, network capacity, routing failure and energy balance.

Keywords: Wireless ad hoc networks, energy hole, energy efficiency, load balancing, energy balance

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