A Review of Titanium Based Orthopaedic Implants (Part-I): Physical Characteristics, Problems and the Need for Surface Modification
X. Shen and P. Shukla
This paper reviews existing literature on basic titanium properties, applications and addresses the requirement for surface modifications to produce better implants. There is a significant demand for artificial implants, due to an ageing population that is a major driver of their growth. The use of titanium and its alloys as implant materials are widely common due to the excellent mechanical and biocompatible properties and its manufacturability. It majorly reviews titanium and its alloy employed as orthopaedic implants. The basic mechanical properties, biocompatibility, corrosion and wear resistance of Ti-based biomaterial are also summarized. Furthermore, it is necessary for implants to comprise of necessary mechanical properties and physical characteristics to enable them to maintain their strength for a significant period of time by surface modifications. Therefore, comprehensive surface modification techniques for titanium alloys are discussed herein, which includes work on biocompatible properties of titanium implants enhanced by contact and non-contact surface roughening or coating biocompatible materials. Such techniques not only satisfy the end-users, but also improve the standard of their living. This paper also illustrates the current trend of titanium-based alloys and surface modification techniques, which contributes to the end-user to understand the pros and cons of titanium based implants.
Keywords: Titanium, implants, surface modification