Rapid Induction of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation in a Biologically Compatible Coolant
Joshua W. Lampe, Diana L. Bull and Lance. B. Becker
Therapeutic hypothermia, the reduction of the core body temperature by 3–4ºC, is gaining recognition as an important medical treatment. Rapid induction of hypothermia has been achieved in animal research, but it has yet to be achieved clinically using a simple, widely practicable method. Here we characterize a prototype platform technology designed to create a sterile, biologically compatible, high heat capacity coolant for clinical use. The coolant is a specially processed micro-particulate ice saline slurry, that can be easily pumped into a patient through surgical tubing, syringes, or minimally invasive surgical instruments. The device has exhibited three distinct ice production modes. During heterogeneous nucleation, the device begins continuous production of ice slurry that contains ~30% ice by mass within 10 minutes. The nominal ice particle diameter is smaller than 100 μm. This work represents a significant first step toward addressing clinical needs for rapid human cooling.
Keywords: Therapeutic Hypothermia, Ice Slurry, Patient Cooling.