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Experimental Studies on Three-layer Flow Pattern in Oil–water Horizontal Flow
Dhurjati Prasad Chakrabarti and Gargi Das

The three layer (TL) flow pattern, which occurs during the cocurrent flow of two immiscible liquids, is studied in detail. The pressure gradient and in situ volume fraction are estimated. The experimental work is performed in a 25 mm diameter, horizontal, perspex (PMMA) tube, using water and kerosene (1.2 mPa s viscosity and 787 kg/m3 density) as test fluids. The identification of the TL flow pattern boundaries is achieved with the use of an optical probe and its probability density function analysis. Measurements are made for single-phase velocities ranging from 0.03 – 2.5 m/s. TL flow appears at intermediate mixture velocities between stratified and dispersed flows. The separated flow model using energy considerations and standard homogeneous model are not able to predict the pressure gradient and hold-up in every region of TL flow.

Keywords: Liquid–liquid flow; Three layer; Pressure gradient; Hold-up; Horizontal pipe, Instability, Contact angle.

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